By Rajan Gurukkal describes the early historical times that subsume the region as part of Tamiḻakam; the formation of agrarian settlements; the formation of state, overland and overseas trade; the arrival of the foreign trading companies; the Mysorean invasions; British dominance; the various peasant and reform movements; the impact of the national freedom movement; the Aikya Kerala movement; and the Communist movement, which led to the Communist ministry and the making of modern Kerala.